Presentation on theme: \”Why Is Population Increasing at Different Rates in Different Countries? \”в Presentation transcript:
Why Is Population Increasing at Different Rates in Different Countries? * Process of change in a societyвs population * Moves from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase * End with a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase and a higher population * Stage 1 в low growth * Prominent in a society that depends on hunting and gathering * Food is scarce, so population remains low * Stage 2 в high growth * Results from a period of industrialization * More inventions and advancements makes it easier to sustain growing population * Stage 3 в moderate growth * Crude birth rate drops sharply, but population continues to grow * MDC were in this stage during the early 20 th century * Stage 4 в low growth * Zero population growth (ZPG) в birth rate equals death rate Fig. 2-13: The demographic transition consists of four stages, which move from high birth and death rates, to declines first in death rates then in birth rates, and finally to a stage of low birth and death rates.
Population growth is most rapid in the second stage. * Dependency ratio в number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to those in their productive years * Dependents в younger than 15; older than 65 * The large number of children in LDCs puts a strain on poorer countries to provide services such as hospitals, schools, day care Fig. 2-15: About one-third of world population is under 15, but the percentage by country varies from over 40% in most of Africa and some Asian countries, to under 20% in much of Europe. * Number of males per hundred females in the population * More males are born than females; however, males have a higher death rate * A high mortality rate during childbirth accounts for the small female population in LDCs Fig. 2-16: Population pyramids can vary greatly with different fertility rates (Laredo vs.
Honolulu), or among military bases (Unalaska), college towns (Lawrence), and retirement communities (Naples). Cape Verde, which entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in about 1950, is experiencing rapid population growth. Its population history reflects the impacts of famines and out-migration. Chile entered stage 2 of the demographic transition in the 1930s, and it entered stage 3 in the 1960s. Denmark has been in stage 4 of the demographic transition since the 1970s, with little population growth since then. Its population pyramid shows increasing numbers of elderly and few children. * What reasons can you give that may have contributed to a drop in the crude death rate throughout the world? In demographics, the rate of natural increase ( RNI ) is the crude minus the crude. This rate excludes population increase from in migration and out migration. When looking at countries, it gives an idea of what position in the, but to find out how much a country is growing, the should be observed.
The Demographic Transition Theory explains the rate of natural increase relate to the economic growth. Usually developing countries have a positive or high natural increase rate. Developed countries have a negative/neutral or low natural increase rate, but many developed countries have their population increasing due to despite their negative RNI. These countries also have the lower rate of death. This is because developing countries and developed countries are in different stages of the demographic transition. Developing countries are generally in the earlier stages of the transition meaning they have high fertility, which would show an increase in crude birth rates. Developed countries usually have lower or more stable fertility rates so they don\’t show as high rates in natural increase. This can be applied to mortality rates as well, because developing countries generally have higher mortality rates than developed countries.
High mortality rates are due to differences in deaths from chronic and acute diseases. The RNI can be shaped by government policy and a country\’s. Policies can either encourage an increase in birth rates or discourage an increase in birth rates. For example China\’s one child policy was made to decrease birth rates therefore decreasing the RNI. A country with a good infrastructure to support families, women\’s health, and maternal/child health would likely have lower death rates from infant or maternal mortality. (Crude birth rate Crude death rate) / 10, where birth and death rates are in. The result is the rate of natural increase in form. For example, \’s crude birth rate (37. 89) minus the crude death rate (7. 97) is 29. 92; divide that by 10 and the result is 2. 992%, Madagascar\’s rate of natural increase The average global birth rate is 18. 5 births per 1,000 total population in 2016. The death rate is 7. 8 per 1,000 per year. The RNI is thus 1. 07 percent.