Lead Details Lead Symbol: Lead Atomic Number: Lead Atomic Weight: 207. 2
What is Lead? Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group under number 82. Its symbol is Pb, after the Latin plumbum. As we know, in the past, all the plumbing was made of lead, which results in poisoning and death. Thankfully, it no longer is. Lead is soft and considered a poor metal, which means that it is a metallic element in the p-block. It is not clear why these elements are considered poor metals. What sets them apart from the others is that their electro-negativity is higher while their melting and boiling points are lower than that of transition metals. The other poor metals are tin, gallium, aluminum, bismuth, indium, and thallium. Lead is also considered a heavy metal. Its exposure to air renders it gray in color; otherwise it is whitish and silvery when melted. Some consider lead to be the most stable element of all because of its high atomic number. Lead has three stable isotopes and one unstable isotope. All of them are natural. The first isotope, Pb-204, is slightly radioactive and is considered primordial, meaning that it is older than the Earth itself. This is the unstable one. The stable isotopes Pb-206, 207 and 208 are generated from isotopes of the elements thorium and uranium. Lead is, as mentioned, a metal that has been used since the beginning of time. It is easy to use and extract, being ductile and malleable. It has been used as early as 6400 BC, as evidenced by lead beads found in what is Turkey today. Lead was used with arsenic in the Bronze Age. Lead has many uses to this day, notwithstanding the fact that water pipes are not made of it anymore. It is used in construction, shots, bullets, batteries, and as a shield from radiation. Other uses include in some alloys and in solders. It is useful in dating because its half-life is extremely high. One major use of lead is in the glass of television and computer screens, shielding the viewer from radiation.
Other uses are in lead crystal glassware, as weight in sports equipment, in solders, cables, ammunitions, and sheeting. Lead is soft, dense, and malleable. It is very resistant to corrosion, which is why it is frequently used in construction. Adding small amounts of calcium and antimony serves to harden lead. The element does not occur in nature frequently. It is found in zinc, silver and copper ore. Galena is the major mineral containing lead around 87 percent, more specifically. It is also found in anglesite and cerussite. Lead has disastrous side effects in high levels. It inflicts heavy damage to the central nervous system and causes blood and brain disorders. It accumulates in the bones and in soft tissues. Other unwanted effects include diminished learning abilities, declined fertility in men, and behavioral disruptions in children, including hyperactivity, impulsive behavior, and aggression. Lead poisoning has been documented in antiquity and still occurs to this day. In fact, this element is 1 out of 4 metals, which have the most serious effects on human health. The element can enter the body through air (15 percent), water (20 percent), and the food (65 percent). Cigarette smoke contains small amounts while foods such as wine, soft drinks, grains, seafood, meats, and vegetables and fruit may contain significant amounts. You can link to this page, using the code below: Lead – Periodic Table ElementsDatabase. com 2015 What is Lead? Origin / Meaning of the name Lead The English name \’lead\’ is derived from the Celtic word \’luaide\’ meaning reddish, because of the colour of red lead, or lead tetroxide. Red lead was prepared by heating white lead to a very high temperature. It was used as a pigment in the production of used in painting and in particular for illuminating manuscripts. The symbol for lead \’Pb\’ originates from the word \’plumbum\’ which is the Latin name for lead.
A Roman worker in lead was called a plumbarius, hence the name plumber which started to be used in the 19th century when lead water pipes became the principal work of the trade. Plumbism is the medical term for lead poisoning. What is Lead? Periodic Table Group and Classification of the Lead Element Elements can be classified based on their physical states (States of Matter) e. g. gas, solid or liquid. This element is a solid. Lead is classified in the \’Other Metals\’ section which can be located in groups 13, 14, and 15 of the Periodic Table. All of these elements are solid, have a relatively high density and are opaque. In a general overview of the element we can at first describe Lead as a solid. It is a bluish-white metallic element which is seldom found uncombined in nature, however, a compound of lead, called galena, is widely distributed. The chief producers of lead are the USA, Australia and Canada. Nearly 75% of all the elements in the Periodic Table are classified as metals which are detailed in the List of Metals. What is Lead? The Properties of the Lead Element Properties. Lead is a heavy metal which has a brilliant silvery luster on a freshly cut surface, but which soon tarnishes to a dull blue-gray color. It is soft, easily fused (melting at 327), and quite malleable, but has little toughness or strength. For additional facts and information refer to. Facts about the Discovery and History of the Lead Element Lead was discovered was discovered in Ancient times and used by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans and Chinese. Galena, lead sulfide, the ore it could easily be extracted from in open fires and was used widely for cosmetics by the Ancient Egyptians. Heavy and resistant to water, lead was used by the ancients making of weights and sinkers. The ancient Romans used lead for making water pipes, cooking utensils and storage vessels which were used in most major cities in the empire.
Lead is one of the metals referred to as one of the \’Metals of Antiquity\’. The ancient \’Metals of Antiquity\’ together with their approximate dates of discovery and use are Gold (6000BC), Copper (9000BC), Silver (4000BC), Lead (6400BC), Tin (3000BC), Iron (1500BC) and Mercury (1500BC). What is Lead? Occurrence of the Lead Element Lead is found in nature chiefly as the sulphide (PbS), called galena; to a much smaller extent it occurs as carbonate, sulphate, chromate, and in a few other forms. Found in ore with Zinc, Silver and (most abundantly) Copper Abundances of the element in different environments % in Meteorites 0. 00014% % in Earth s Crust 0. 00099% % in Humans 0. 00017% Changes in the Uses of Lead – Damage to the environment Due to the toxic nature of lead many products containing the element are no longer being manufactured because of the risk of lead poisoning and damage to the environment. Leaded gasoline (tetraethyl lead) was once believed to have great advantages in improving the performance of car engines. However, when it gets hot, tetraethyl lead breaks down in a car engine and elemental lead is formed which polluted the atmosphere. Lead paint and lead water and sewer pipes for plumbing are no longer being manufactured. Uses of Lead Radiation shields – Shielding against radiation. In its metallic form, lead is used as a protective shielding against radiographs. In dentistry, lead acts as a protective shield against the radiographic beam and is found in the lead apron and walls of the surrounding room. Lead oxides: Lead forms a number of oxides, the most important of which are litharge, red lead (minium), and lead peroxide. Compounds: lead acetate is used in insecticides and dyeing of cloth, lead fluoride is used to make lasers and lead stearate is used to make soaps, waxes and paint.