why was vasco nunez de balboa important


Во время одной из таких вылазок Бальбоа удалось выяснить, что к югу от Дарьена простирается страна, утопающая в золоте, а также большое море. Эти новости вызвали при королевском дворе золотую лихорадку. Хотя Бальбоа запросил на покорение
всего тысячу воинов, король отправил в Дарьен вдвое больше, поставив во главе не Бальбоа, а пожилого придворного интриганаP. Не дожидаясь прихода подкреплений, Бальбоа со 190 испанцами и множеством индейцев-проводников выдвинулся из своего города (1 сентября 1513Pг. ) и то ли 25, то ли 27 дней спустя с одной из вершин горного кряжа в безмолвии узрел расстилающуюся к западу безбрежную водную гладь Тихого океана. Он вышел на берег океана и окрестил его Южным морем ( Mar del Sur ). Король, получив новости об этом открытии, назначил Бальбоа губернатором всего побережья вновь открытого моря; сам Бальбоа дал этим землям название. Последние годы жизни Бальбоа в Дарьене были омрачены соперничеством с Давилой, под командованием которого он оказался. Местный епископ попытался примирить конкистадоров, и Давила поклялся выдать за Бальбоа свою дочь, оставшуюся в Испании. Несмотря на это, и Давила и Бальбоа продолжали интриговать и чернить друг друга в глазах короля. Когда Давила узнал о своем смещении с поста губернатора, он решил отомстить своему сопернику. В большой спешке Бальбоа и четверо его приближенных были арестованы (по некоторым данным, его арестовывал считавшийся другом ), подвергнуты суду и признаны виновными в, после чего им отрубили головы. Прошло время после того, как губернатор Педрариас отрубил голову своему зятю аделантадо Васко Нуньесу де Бальбоа, а также капитану Франсиско Эрнандесу в Никарагуа и, убитый индейцами Сену капитан Бесерра с христианами, с ним пришедшими, и после других событий, когда пришел губернатором провинции Картахена дон Педро де Эредиа, он послал капитана Алонсо де Эредиа, своего брата, с множеством испанцев, весьма благородных, чтобы заселить во второй раз Ураба, назвав его городом Сан-Себастьян де Буэнависта.


Обещанная в жены Бальбоа дочь Давилы впоследствии вышла замуж за конкистадора. With the title of governor came absolute authority in Santa Mara and all of Veragua. One of Balboa\’s first acts as governor was the trial of Fernndez de Enciso, accused of usurping the governor\’s authority. De Enciso was sentenced to prison and his possessions were confiscated. However, he was to remain imprisoned only for a short time: Balboa set him free under the condition that he return immediately to Hispaniola and from there to Spain. With him on the same ship were two representatives from Balboa, who were to inform the colonial authorities of the situation, and request more men and supplies to continue the conquest of Veragua. Balboa continued defeating various tribes and befriending others, exploring rivers, mountains, and sickly swamps, while always searching for gold and and enlarging his territory. He was also able to quell revolts among those of his men who challenged this authority, and, through force, diplomacy, and negotiation, he earned a certain respect and fear among the natives. In a letter addressed to the King of Spain, he expressed, somewhat ironically, that he had to act as a conciliatory force during the course of his expeditions.


He succeeded in planting, received fresh supplies from Hispaniola and Spain, and got his men used to life as explorers in the new territories. Balboa managed to collect a great deal of gold, much of it from the ornaments worn by the native women, and the rest obtained by violence. in his De orbe novo decades, wrote how Balboa had fed forty local homosexual men to his dogs. Balboa, upset with \” a brother of the king and other young men, obliging men, [who] dressed effeminately with women\’s clothing [. of those which the brother of the king] went too far with unnatural\” temerity, threw forty of them as food to the dogs. D\’Anghiera continues his story saying that the indigenous people\’s \” natural hate for unnatural sin \” drove them so that, \” spontaneously and violently, they searched for all the rest that they would know who were infected \”. After all, D\’Anghiera mentions that \” only the nobles and the gentlemen practiced that kind of desire. [. The] indigenous people knew that sodomy gravely offended God. [. And that these acts provoked] the tempests that with thunder and lightning so frequently afflicted them, or the floods that drowned their fruits that had caused hunger and sickness. At the end of 1512 and the first months of 1513, he arrived in a region dominated by the cacique Careta, whom he easily defeated and then befriended. Careta was and became one of Balboa\’s chief allies; he ensured the survival of the settlers by promising to supply the Spaniards with food. Balboa then proceeded on his journey, arriving in the lands of Careta\’s neighbour and rival, cacique Ponca, who fled to the mountains with his people, leaving his village open to the plundering of the Spaniards and Careta\’s men.

Days later, the expedition arrived in the lands of cacique Comagre, fertile but reportedly dangerous terrain. However, Balboa was received peacefully and even invited to a feast in his honor; Comagre, like Careta, was then baptized. In 1513, Balboa wrote a lengthy letter to the King of Spain, requesting more men (who were already acclimatized) from Hispaniola, weapons, supplies, carpenters versed in shipbuilding, and all the necessary materials for the building of a. In a subsequent letter, from 1515, he would refer to his humanitarian policies regarding the natives, while at the same time recommending extreme severity in dealing with and violent tribes. It was in Comagre\’s lands that Balboa first heard of \”the other sea. \” It started with a squabble among the Spaniards, unsatisfied by the meager amounts of gold they were being allotted. Comagre\’s eldest son, Panquiaco, angered by the Spaniards\’ avarice, knocked over the scales used to measure gold and exclaimed: \”If you are so hungry for gold that you leave your lands to cause strife in those of others, I shall show you a province where you can quell this hunger\”. Panquiaco told them of a kingdom to the south, where people were so rich that they ate and drank from plates and goblets made of gold, but that the conquerors would need at least a thousand men to defeat the tribes living inland and those on the coast of \”the other sea\”.

Show More

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button