why do we need system analysis and design


When you asked to computerise a system, as a requirement of
the data processing or the
information need, it is necessary to analyze the system from different angles. While satisfying such need, the analysis of the system is the basic necessity for an efficient system design. The need for analysis stems from the following point of view. It is necessary to define the system objective(s). Many a times, it is observed that the systems are historically in operation and have lost their main purpose of achievement of the objectives. The users of the system and the personnel involved are not in a position to define the objective(s). Since you are going to develop a computer based system, it is necessary to redefine or reset the objective(s) as a reference point in the context of the current business requirement. It is necessary to establish the system boundaries which would define the scope and the coverage of the system.


This helps to sort out and understand the functional boundaries of the system, the department boundaries in the system, and the people involved in the system. It also helps to identify the inputs and the outputs of the various sub-systems covering the entire system. System Importance: It is necessary to understand the importance of the system in the organization. This would throw more light on its utility and would help the designer to decide the design features of the system. It would be possible then to position the system in relation to the other systems for deciding the design strategy and development. Nature of The System: The analysis of the system will help the system designer to conclude whether the system is the closed type or open, and a deterministic or probabilistic. Such an understanding of the system is necessary, prior to design the process to ensure the necessary design architecture.


Role of the System as an Interface: The system, many a times, acts as an interface to the other systems. Hence through such an interface, it activates or promotes some changes in the other systems. It is necessary to understand the existing role of the system, as an interface, to safeguard the interests of the other systems. Any modifications or changes made should not affect the functioning or the objective of the other systems. Participation of Users: The strategic purpose of the analysis of the system is to seek the acceptance of the people to a new development. System analysis process provides a sense of participation to the people. This helps in breaking the resistance to the new development and it also ensure the commitment to the new system.


The analysis of the system helps in defining the resource requirements in terms of hardware and software. Hence, if any additional resources are required, this would mean an investment. The management likes to evaluate the investment form the point of view of return on such investment. If the return on the investment is not attractive, the management may drop the project. Assessment of Feasibility: The analysis of the system helps to establish the feasibility from different angles. The system should satisfy the technical, economic and operational feasibility. Many times, the systems are feasible from the technical and economic point of view: but they may be infeasible from the operational point of view. The assessment of feasibility will save the investment and the system designer\’s time. It would also save the embarrassment to the system designer as he is viewed as the key figure in such projects.

One can approach the system analysis and design exercise in a systematic manner in steps, as shown in the Table below : The business of business is to make money. An obvious advantage of using system analysis and design to improve business quality is increased profits. Low quality or substandard products can have detrimental consequences on a business over time. Reputation wanes. The expense incurred with repeating tasks erodes profits. Competitors can move into the company\’s sales territory. The benefits of an integrated system include higher levels of quality control and lower production costs by streamlining data processing and production processes. A systems engineer can implement complex designs to complete multiple and intricate production jobs along an extensive assembly line.

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