Introduction Health is a state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and socially. Disease: Any disturbance in the structure or function of any organ or part of body. The various causes of diseases are pathogens (virus, bacteria), lack of nutritious diet/balanced diet and lack of public health services. Acute diseases occur suddenly and lasts for a short duration while chronic diseases develop slowly and lasts for long period of time. The diseases/infections can be prevented by life style (exercise, proper sleep, enough relaxation) modification, taking balanced diet, good personal health and hygiene and also maintaining a clean and healthy surrounding. Treatment involves killing of the microbes/pathogens. Health is a state of physical, mental and social well-being. (i) Good physical and social environment. (ii) Good economic conditions. Good physical and social environment includes clean surroundings, good sanitation, proper garbage disposal and clean drinking water. Good economic conditions includes job opportunities for earning to have nutritious food and to lead a healthy life.
Community Health All those activities which people do both individually and in groups for the development of their society, constitute the community health. Personal and community health are supplementary to each other. We protect ourselves by keeping our body clean. For this, we also require a good and healthy environment in our surroundings. We can have this only by the means of community health and development. So, both personal and community health are inter-related.
Chapter Notes : Why do we fall ill? Health and Diseases The World Health Organisation [W. H. O. ] gave the following definition of health in 1948. Health is state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The WHO definition of health recognizes three dimension of health i. e. Physical, mental and social. In 1978 this definition was updated by including- the ability to lead a Socially and economically productive life. It is rightly said that Health is Wealth. There are various factors which influence health.
These factors lie both within the individual and also in the society in which he or she lives. The internal factors are basically the genetic make-up of an individual while external factors lie in the environment to which he/she is exposed. Personal health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. Community health comprises of maintaining, improving and protecting the health of entire community. The various factors that help in maintaining community health are : (i) Maintaining proper hygienic and sanitary conditions of the environment. (ii) Providing good socio-economic conditions. (iii) Providing health care services. (iv) Imparting health education and promoting public awareness. (v) Providing proper facilities for preventing diseases. Basic conditions for good health : Sound mind in a sound body is the old saying and expresses the importance of good health. Distinctions between healthy and Disease free DISEASE The word disease (dis-ease) literally means disturbed ease or uncomfortable.
Thus disease can be defined as Malfunctioning of the body or a part of it due to one reason or the other. Or Disease is a condition of the body or a part of it in which functions are disturbed or deranged. Signs and symptoms of a disease Signs and symptoms help in the diagnosis of a disease Diagnosis means the process of identifying a disease. In many case doctor also needs the help of laboratory tests of blood, urine, stool etc and diagnostic images like x rays to diagnose a disease. Pathogens – Disease causing organisms are called pathogens or infectious agents. Vectors – Animals or insects that carry the infectious agents from one person to another and spread a disease are called vectors. Acute and Chronic Disease A disease that occurs suddenly and lasts for a short period of time is called an acute disease e. g. common cold Malaria disease. A disease that lasts for a long time is called chronic disease e. g. tuberculosis. Disease and its cause Human health is affected by various factors causes or sources, these factors can be of two major types :-