9. 8. 2017 16:18
Global warming caused by an intensifying greenhouse effect will not affect Finland in the same way all year round. The impacts felt in Finland are also expected to be different than in such areas as Southern Europe. Winters will become significantly warmer and there will be more rain during the winter months, while the changes in the summer will be less marked. When compared with the summers of the past few decades, this summer has been fairly chilly in Finland but a century ago such temperatures would have been quite common. Warm weather has not, however, disappeared from the earth this year: Warm air currents have travelled to such areas as southern parts of Europe where temperatures of more than 40 degrees have been recorded this summer. Global warming is expected to make Finnish summers warmer. On average, summers are expected to become about 0. 3 degrees warmer each decade during the first half of this century. The rate of change during the later decades depends on the growth of greenhouse gas emissions. Even a slight increase in temperatures will have an impact on the occurrence of very high temperatures. As global warming is progressing, high extreme temperatures are becoming increasingly likely, while at the same time low extremes are become less common. For example, the year 2015 was the warmest ever recorded in Southern Finland. Few people would believe this because, as in this summer, there were few spells of hot weather two years ago. In fact, the record-high average for 2015 was caused by an extremely mild autumn and winter. \”This is one of the unpleasant scenarios of global warming: Mild winters with little snow and a lot of darkness are becoming increasingly common in southern and central parts of Finland\”, explains Juhani Damski, Director-General of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Summers will also become warmer but more slowly than winters. Since the mid-19th century, the average temperature in Finland has already risen by more than two degrees. The average rate of increase during the period has been 0. 14 degrees each decade, which is almost twice the global average.
The rise in average temperatures is already having an impact on Finnish weather and nature. It should be remembered, however, that even though the climate is changing, the annual variation will remain. This means that there will still be years that are colder than average and years that are warmer than average. Based on the results of the climate change models, there is a more than 95 per cent likelihood that in the next decade, the average temperatures in Finland will be higher than during the reference period 1971 – 2000. If the efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions are reasonably successful (RCP4. 5 scenario), the annual average temperatures in Finland are expected to rise by 2-5 degrees by the end of the century, from the levels of the late 20th century. In this scenario, winters would be 2-7 degrees and summers 1-4 degrees warmer. If the actual rise in temperatures is halfway between these two uncertainty figures, the areas around the Arctic Circle will, by the end of century, have the same climate as Southern Finland has now. Cold winters are becoming less common In the short run, winter temperatures are likely to rise more rapidly than summer temperatures even though there is also a great deal of variation in winter temperatures in particular. As climate change progresses, cold winters are becoming less common. As average temperatures are increasing, there will be fewer days with sub-zero temperatures and the thermal growing season will become longer. There will be less fluctuation in winter temperatures and as a result, the lowest extremes will rise more than the average temperatures. Winters will become cloudier and the average snow cover will decline. Heavy rainfall will become more common during the summer months in Finland As the greenhouse effect is intensifying, it will impact precipitation in addition to what takes place as a result of natural climatic variation much more slowly than changes in temperatures. Both the rise in temperatures and the increase in precipitation are more marked in winter than in summer.
The results indicate that there will be an increasing number of rainy days and more rainfall in winter, while the longest dry periods will become shorter. Heavy rainfall will also become more common during the summer months. Summers in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean countries, will become warmer and drier. The results of modelling indicate that the heat waves resembling those experienced this summer will also become more common in Central Europe. Climate change is thus expected to make extremely high temperatures more intense and more widespread. FURTHER INFORMATION: ilmasto-opas. fi Although most of you know what seasons are, we wanted to give you a quick overview. Seasons are all created because the Earth actually sits on a small tilt. If you put a stick through the planet and watched it spin, you would see that we spin 23. 5 degrees off a straight up and down position. Since we are at a tilt, different parts of the planet are warmer during different times of the year. With the tilt, our year is broken up into four seasons. For the northern hemisphere, summer is the warmest time of year. It\’s not because the planet is that much closer to the Sun, it\’s because the top part of the Earth is facing the Sun for a amount of time. The longest days of the year occur during the summer months. June is the time of the summer solstice, the longest day of the calendar year. The time of the solstice is determined by the location of the Sun. It is directly over the Tropic of Cancer on that longest day. Never forget about the southern hemisphere. During the longest day in the north, you will find the shortest day in the south. When there\’s a heat wave in the United States, it is probably snowing in South America. Summer events include high temperatures, longer days, droughts, and tropical cyclones. This is one of the two in-between seasons. During summer, the North Pole is leaning towards the Sun and the South Pole leans towards the Sun in winter. Fall sees the planets axis directly in line with the Sun.
The Sun is directly over the Equator during the autumnal equinox (September) and heating the northern and southern hemispheres equally. As the northern hemisphere is moving towards shorter days and the cold winter, the southern hemisphere is watching the snows melt and the flowers bloom during their spring. Autumn events include leaves falling from trees, shorter days than summer, and harvesting summer crops. This is the season where the Earth is tilted way from the Sun and the South Pole is getting all of the light. It\’s almost constant night during the cold nights in the North Pole. The South Pole is home to many research scientists who are taking advantage of the long days and warmer temperatures. Winter finds snows across North America and summer fires and drought across the interior of Australia. In December, the Earth hits its next marker when the winter solstice occurs. That shortest day of the year (for the north) happens when the Sun is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn at noon. From that point, everything starts to change again. Winter events include colder temperatures, snow and winter storms, the shortest days of the year, and the hibernation of some animals. Ahh the last season. Spring is a time for rebirth and emerging from the short and cold days of winter. While the northern hemisphere sees spring from March through June, it is fall in the southern hemisphere. March is the time of the vernal equinox that signals the official start of spring. But in reality, plants and animals start spring as soon as the weather starts to warm up. For them it\’s not about calendars, it\’s about the weather changing. As far as the position of the planet, it is a bit of a mirror image to our position in autumn. The Sun is directly over the Equator during the equinox and the northern and southern hemispheres are receiving about the same amount of the Sun\’s energy. Spring events include blooms of wildflowers, new leaves on trees, warmer days that winter, and wetter weather (not snow).