Feb. 6, 2003 — It is widely believed that boys who are victims of sexual abuse become abusers themselves. Studies of pedophiles suggest this often is the case, but new research shows that the risk may be smaller than previously thought. Roughly one in 10 male victims of child abuse in a U. K. study later went on to abuse children as adults. But the risk was far greater for sexually victimized children who came from severely dysfunctional families. Family history of violence, sexual abuse by a female, maternal neglect, and lack of supervision were all associated with a threefold-increased risk that the abused would become an abuser. The study is reported in the Feb. 8 issue of
The Lancet. \”The message here is that sexual victimization alone is not sufficient to suggest a boy is likely to grow up to become a offender,\” study author and Arnon Bentovim tells WebMD. \”But our study does show that abused boys who grow up in families where they are exposed to a great deal of violence or neglect are at particular risk. \” Bentovim and colleagues from London\’s Institute of Child Health identified 224 adult male victims of child sexual abuse whose childhood medical and social service records were available for review.
They then searched arrest and prosecution records to determine their later criminal activity. Most of the subjects were 20 years old or older when the study was conducted. Twenty-six of the 224 sex abuse victims (12%) later committed sexual offenses, and in almost all cases their victims were also children. who came from families where violence was common were more than three times as likely to become abusers as were those who experienced maternal neglect and sexual abuse by females.
One-third of the adult abusers had been cruel to animals as children, compared with just 5% of the child abuse victims who did not grow up to commit sexual crimes. But abusers and nonabusers experienced similar levels of physical abuse as children, and there were few significant differences in the severity or characteristics of the sexual abuse they suffered. Do Abused Children Become Abusive Parents? The belief that abused children are likely to become abusive parents is widely accepted. The authors review the literature cited to support this hypothesis and demonstrate that its unqualified acceptance is unfounded. Mediating factors that affect transmission are outlined and the findings of several investigations are integrated to estimate the true rate of transmission.
The authors concluded from past research that the rate of intergenerational transmission appears to be between 25 and 35 percent. Such a rate would suggest that about one-third of the parents who have histories of abuse will subject their children to abuse. Although that figure is about six times higher than the base rate for abuse in the general population, the authors argued that history of abuse is only one of many possible determinants of transmission. The authors closed by suggesting that the consequences for some adults of such unqualified acceptance of the intergenerational hypothesis is that it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.