The most northern situated penguin lives on the Galapagos Islands, 1100 km west of mainland Ecuador(South America). Maybe a few individuals crossed the equator and nest on the northern most island of the Galapagos, but that doesn\’t count. A possible explanation for their habitat could be the Humboldt current, which drove them northwards,
but the equatorial counter current which comes from the north of the Galapagos could have stopped them from swimming further up north. Many islands on the northern hemisphere are surrounded by sheer rocks, so penguins can\’t land on them or else are the habitat
for dangerous predators, which especially applies to the coasts of the mainland. On the opposite, auks can nest in chasms where predators can\’t reach them, but aren\’t able to stand up against the extreme climates,
that adelies and emperors have to face.
So both are well adjusted to their own specific conditions of life. Neither of them would take advantage of moving. Several times, people have tried to release some caught penguins around northern Norway, but all those experiments failed. The fact that there are already animals, looking a lot like penguins, namely the Giant Auk (in Latin : pingu nus impennis),
could also be a reason why penguins don\’t live in the northern hemisphere. next chapter:
You can find penguins in captivity in several aquariums all over the world.
However, all known species of penguins live naturally in the southern hemisphere. Contrary to general belief, Penguins do not live only in icy conditions. Outside of Antarctica, Penguins usually inhabit desertic regions and rocky islands where there are not a large number of land predators, so their incapacity to fly is not an issue. Their habitat ranges from the ice shelf on Antarctica, like the emperor penguin, to some temperate islands near the equator, like the Galapagos penguin. Also, some penguin species live in South Africa and Australia. King Penguin Subarctic islands, Tierra del Fuego, South Georgia Island. Emperor Penguin Antarctica. Adelie Penguin Ross Sea Region in Antarctica.
Chinstrap Penguin South Sandwich Islands, Antarctica, South Orkneys, South Shetland, South Georgia Island, Bouvet, Balleny and Peter Islands. Gentoo Penguin Falkland, South Georgia, Kerguelen, South Shetland, Heard and Macquarie Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula. Little Blue Penguin Southern Australia, New Zealand, Chatham Islands and Tasmania. Some reports in Chile. Northern Little Penguin New Zealand, nesting only on Banks Peninsula and Motunau Island. Magellanic Penguin Southern cone of South America. Coastal south Argentina and south Chile including the Falkland Islands. Humboldt Penguin Galapagos Penguin African Penguin (Jackass Penguin) South western coast of Africa.
Yellow Eyed Penguin New Zealand in the South-east coast of South Island, Foveaux Strait and Stewart Island and Auckland and Campbell Islands. Waitaha Penguin (Extinct) Fiordland Penguin Snares Penguin New Zealand on the Snares Islands. Southern Rockhopper Penguin The American Southern Rockhopper Penguin lives in the Falkland Islands and islands off Argentina and southern Chile. The Indopacific Southern Rockhopper Penguin lives in islands of the Indian and western Pacific oceans. Northern Rockhopper Penguin Northern Rockhoppers breed on Tristan da Cunha and Gough Island in the south Atlantic Ocean, with the remainder found on St Paul Island and Amsterdam Island in the Indian Ocean. Royal Penguin